Based on the trailblazing research on facial expressions conducted years ago by Paul Ekman, Dacher Keltner described the signs he saw when he watched Clemens tell Congress in February of 2008, that he did not use performance-enhancing drugs.
Keltner saw these clues when Clemens testified:
• Jiggling the legs.
• Touching the face.
• Speech hesitations.
• Stammering or repeating words.
• Nervously biting or licking the lip.
• Sudden rises in the pitch of their voice.
• Subtle facial expressions of negative emotion.
• Dropping his head down.
• Averting gaze, thus avoiding making eye contact with others.
• Muscle movements around the mouth display embarrassment and shame: “The mentalis muscle is moving his chin up and tightening his lip corners, and as a result, a crest is forming around the corners of his lips.”